Within country development agencies, approaches to supporting SDG 16 and VNR/post-VNR processes vary. The Republic of Korea’s International Cooperation Agency, for example, mainstreamed SDG 16 into its ODA. Germany, more broadly focused on the 2030 Agenda, is supporting peer-learning on VNR monitoring and review processes in partner countries. Others engaged in this support include U.K., Switzerland, Sweden, and the Netherlands. This list is far from exhaustive.
Development agencies also support CSOs, albeit larger outfits, and generally have more flexibility in doing so as compared to IFIs. However, they also face limitations, particularly in terms of policy mandates, accountability towards taxpayers, and public opinion.
IFIs, such as the World Bank or the African or Asian Development Banks, often provide significant financial backing to member states which can support SDG 16 implementation, even if not specifically targeted for SDG 16 (as related to prevention and forced displacement, e.g.). As such, IFIs, broadly, often have the ear of finance ministers, who often lead or hold leadership roles related to national budgets, NDPs and VNRs. IFIs have also recently increased their funding for issues related to SDG 16. For ex., the World Bank has significantly increased its support for fragile and conflict-affected countries and in 2018, the International Monetary Fund’s Executive Board approved a new framework for enhanced governance, including as related to governance vulnerabilities, such as corruption.
The UN is also, of course, critical to mobilizing action on SDG16 and to responding to country demand for support at HQ and country levels. UN Development System reforms have focused on strengthening the UN at the country level, incentivizing accountable leadership, partnerships, and improved financing. Related to NDPs and VNRs, UN Resident Coordinators at the country level are tasked with coordinating UN operational activities (including on SDG16) and preparing UN Sustainable Development Coordination Frameworks (UNSDCFs). These are based on national development priorities and feature partnerships with the government and other stakeholders. UN custodian agencies for SDG 16 indicators include: UNODC, WHO, DESA, OHCHR, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNCTAD, UNODA, OECD and UNSD, with UN Women and UNFPA acting as partner agencies.
Other IOs with direct SDG 16 relevance, such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) or the International Development Law Organization (IDLO), support their member states in achieving the SDGs and have also developed various tools and analysis to measure and strengthen progress towards the 2030 Agenda.